Dr. Swaminathan Sethu
Scientist - Immunology

Dr. Swaminathan Sethu

Scientist - Immunology

3rd Floor, Narayana Nethralaya, Narayana Health City

# 258/A, Bommasandra, Hosur Road,

Bangalore, 560099 INDIA.


Contact Details
Email swaminathansethu@narayananethralaya.com
Phone +91-80-66660712

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Education

PhD (Molecular & Cellular Immunology) 2009 – National University of Singapore, Singapore

MSc (Restorative Dentistry; Biomaterials) 2005 – National University of Singapore, Singapore

BDS (Dental Surgery) 2000 – The TN Dr MGR Medical University, Chennai. India.


Experience

Research Scientist – School of Bio Sciences and Technology, VIT, India (2013-2015)

Post-doctoral Research Associate – MRC Centre for Drug Safety Science, University of Liverpool, UK (2010 – 2013)

Post-doctoral Research Fellow – Department of Physiology, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore (2007 – 2010)

Associate Lecturer – School of Life sciences, PSB Academy of Sciences, Singapore (Partner university: University of Western Australia, Australia) (2008-2009)
Associate Lecturer – School of Life sciences, MDIS, Singapore (Partner university: University of Bradford, UK) (2008-2010)
Teaching Assistant – Dept of Physiology, National University of Singapore (2004 – 2007)
Teaching Assistant – Dept of Pharmacology, University of Liverpool (2011-2013)


Research interests

Ocular immune balance & defence system in health & disease: Immune privileged status of the eye, and the use of immunomodulators and anti-inflammatory agents in the management of majority of the ocular conditions underpins the unique status of immune balance in the eye. Our research focuses on characterizing the ocular immune balance in health and disease. We are currently investigating the role of altered soluble and cellular immune factors including corneal dendritic cells, natural killer cells, gamma delta T cells and neutrophils status in ocular surface conditions such as dry eye disease, keratoconus, ocular graft versus host disease and ocular manifestations of autoimmune disease. We are also studying the immunological basis of optic nerve and retinal degenerative process (glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, AMD). Further, we are determining the distinct intraocular immune cell subsets in different types of uveitis and ocular tumours. The immune-monitoring and characterizing strategies include both phenotyping immune cells and cell-bound/secreted factors in the various anatomical locations in the eye during health and disease. In addition, we are determining the interaction of the ocular cells and immune cells in facilitating homeostasis and disease in various ocular conditions – infectious and non-infectious. Our “translational ocular immunobiology” research program is directed to uncover immune-mediated mechanisms underlying ocular disease pathobiology, disease prognosis and response to treatments.


Research support

- Intraocular immune cell profiling in dry age-related macular degeneration. By – ARVO Foundation for Eye Research, USA (Principal investigator) – (2020).

- Predicting Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) in infants from biomarkers in their tears. By – Bayer, Germany (Co-Investigator) – (2020).

- Biomarker Discovery in Two Daily Disposable Contact Lenses. By – Johnson & Johnson Vision Care, Inc, USA (Co-Investigator) – (2018).

- Unraveling the physiological mechanism of Heartfulness meditation Pranahuti-mediated benefits on cardiovascular risk. By – SATYAM, Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India. (Co-Investigator) – (2018).

- Elucidating the role of PPAR alpha in the development of doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy. By – SERB, Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India. (Co-Investigator) – (2017).

- To investigate the immunopathological role of dendritic cells-mediated inflammation and vitamin D modulation in Dry Eye Disease. By – SERB, Dept. of Science & Technology, Govt. of India. (Principal Investigator) – (2016)


Patents 

- A quantitative testing of vitamins in tears and topical ophthalmic composition for treatment of ocular diseases. (Complete filed – Appl. No.: 3818/CHE/2015, Country of filing – India)

- Angiogenin as a diagnostic or prognostic biomarker and drug target in age-related macular degeneration. (Complete filed – Appl. No: 201641012304, Country of filing – India)

- A topical formulation for alleviating inflammatory and ectatic signs and symptoms for ocular conditions. (Provisional Specification filing done Feb 15th 2019, Country of filing – India)

- Biomarkers for diagnosis of ocular diseases and the method thereof. (Provisional Specification filing done Feb 15th 2019, Country of filing – India)


Publications 

Rohit Shetty, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Santosh G Honavar, Pooja Khamar, Swaminathan Sethu. Therapeutic opportunities to manage COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2 infection. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology – 2020. 68(5):693-702.


Prerna Ahuja, Zelda Dadachanji, Rohit Shetty, Sowmya Arudi Nagarajan, Pooja Khamar, Swaminathan Sethu, Sharon D'Souza. Relevance of IgE in the pathogenesis and management of Keratoconus. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology – 2020. In press


Sushma Tejwani, Praveen Machiraju, Archana Padmanabhan Nair, Anuprita Ghosh, Raunak Kumar Das, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu. Treatment of glaucoma by Prostaglandin agonists and Beta-blockers in combination directly reduces pro-fibrotic gene expression in trabecular meshwork. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine – 2020. 24 (9):5195-5204


Rohit Shetty, Jagadeesh R Naidu, Archana Padmanabhan Nair, Tanuja Arun Vaidya, Sharon D'Souza, Himanshu Matalia, Swaminathan Sethu, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Koushik Chakrabarty. Distinct ocular surface soluble factor profile in human corneal dystrophies. The Ocular Surface – 2019. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2019.11.007.


Trailokyanath Panigrahi, Shivapriya Shivakumar, Rohit Shetty, Sharon D’souza, Everette Jacob RN, Swaminathan Sethu, Nallathambi Jeyabalan and Arkasubhra Ghosh. Trehalose augments autophagy to mitigate stress-induced inflammation in human corneal cells. The Ocular Surface – 2019. 17(4):699-713.


Sayan Ghosh, Archana Padmanabhan Nair, Tanuja Vaidya, Alan M Watson, Imran Bhutto, Stacey Hose, Peng Shang, Nadezda Stepicheva, Meysam Yazdankhah, Joseph Weiss, Manjula Das, Santosh Gopikrishna, Aishwarya, Naresh Yadav, Thorsten Berger, Tak Mak, Shuli Xia, Jiang Qian, Gerard Lutty, Ashwath Jayagopal, J Zigler, Jr., Swaminathan Sethu, James Handa, Simon Watkins, Arkasubhra Ghosh. Neutrophils homing into the retina trigger pathology in early age-related macular degeneration. Communications Biology – 2019. 2:348.


Pooja Khamar, Archana Padmanabhan Nair, Rohit Shetty, Tanuja Vaidya, Murali Subramani, Murugeswari Ponnalagu, Kamesh Dhamodaran, Sharon D’souza, Anuprita Ghosh, Natasha Pahuja, Rashmi Deshmukh, Prerna Ahuja, Kanchan Sainani, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Debasish Das, Arkasubhra Ghosh#, Swaminathan Sethu#. Dysregulated tear fluid nociception-associated factors, corneal dendritic cell density and vitamin D levels in evaporative dry eye. Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science – 2019. 60(7):2532-2542. (#Corresponding author)


Thilipan Thaventhiran, Wai Wong, Ahmad F Alghanem, Naif Alhumeed, Mohammad A. Aljasir, Simeon Ramsey, Swaminathan Sethu, Han Xian Aw Yeang, Amy E Chadwick, Michael Cross, Steven D Webb, Laiche Djouhri, Christina Ball, Richard Stebbings, and Jean G Sathish. CD28 superagonistic activation of T cells induces a tumour cell-like metabolic program. Monoclonal Antibodies in Immunodiagnosis and Immunotherapy – 2019. 38 (2) : 60-69


Rayne R Lim, Tanuja Vaidya, Santosh G Gaddee, Naresh K Yadav, Swaminathan Sethu, Dean P Hainsworth, Rajiv R Mohan, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Shyam S Chaurasia Correlation between systemic S100A8 and S100A9 levels and severity of diabetic retinopathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews – 2019. 13: 1581 – 1589


Rohit Shetty, Nimisha Rajiv Kumar, Pooja Khamar, Matthew Francis, Swaminathan Sethu, James Bradley Randleman, Ronald R. Krueger, Abhijit Sinha Roy, Arkasubhra Ghosh. Bilaterally asymmetric corneal ectasia following SMILE in association with asymmetrically reduced stromal molecular markers. Journal of Refractive Surgery – 2019. 35(1):6-14


Niyati S. Sharma, Suraj Kumar Acharya, Archana Padmanabhan Nair, Jyoti Matalia, Rohit Shetty, Arkasubhra Ghosh#, Swaminathan Sethu#. Dopamine levels in human tear fluid. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology – 2019. 67(1):38-41. (#Corresponding author)


Namita Dave, Priyanka Chevour, Padmamalini Mahendradas, Anitha Venkatesh, Ankush Kawali, Rohit Shetty, Arkasubhra Ghosh#, Swaminathan Sethu#. Increased aqueous humour CD4+/CD8+ lymphocyte ratio in sarcoid uveitis. Ocular Immunology and Inflammation – 2018. Feb 8:1-8 (#Corresponding author)


Praveen K Balne, Rupesh Agrawal, Veonice B AU, Bernett Lee, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu, Mukesh Agrawal, Raja Narayanan, John Connolly. Dataset of plasma and aqueous humor cytokine profiles in patients with exudative age related macular degeneration. Data in Brief –  2018. (19) 1570–1573


Swaminathan Sethu#, Praveen Machiraju, Archana P. Nair, Anuprita Ghosh, Sushma Tejwani and Arkasubhra Ghosh#. Association between interferon beta levels and neuroretinal degeneration in primary angle closure glaucoma. Canadian Journal of Biotechnology – 2017 Vol 1; Special issue; p166 (#Corresponding author)


Rohit Shetty, Rashmi Deshmukh, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu, Chaitra Jayadev. Altered tear inflammatory profile in Indian keratoconus patients. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology – 2017. May;65 (11):1105-1108.


Rohit Shetty, Shraddha Sureka, Pallak Kusumgar, Swaminathan Sethu, Kanchan Sainani. Allergen specific exposure associated with high IgE and eye rubbing predisposes to progression of keratoconus. Indian Journal of Ophthalmology – 2017. May;65(5):399-402


Rohit Shetty, Neha Shilpy, Pallak Kusumgar, Swaminathan Sethu. Ocular immunology and defence mechanisms. “Modern Ophthalmology” 4th edition – Book Chapter – 2017. In press


Natasha Pahuja, Rohit Shetty, Rashmi Deshmukh, Anupam Sharma, Rudy M M A Nuijts, Vishal Jhanji, Swaminathan Sethu#, Arkasubhra Ghosh. In vivo confocal microscopy and tear cytokine analysis in post-LASIK ectasia. British Journal of Ophthalmology – 2017. Apr 27 (#Corresponding author)


Dimphy Zeegers, Shriram Venkatesan, Shu Wen Koh, Swaminathan Sethu, Birendranath Banerjee, Manikandan Jayapal, Oleg Belyakov, Rajamanickam Baskar, Adayabalam S Balajee, Pataje G Prasanna and M. Prakash Hande. Biomarkers of ionising radiation exposure: A multi-parametric approach. Genome Integrity – 2017.  Jan 23;8:6


Rohit Shetty†, Swaminathan Sethu†#, Priyanka Chevour†, Kalyani Desphande, Natasha Pahuja, Harsha Nagaraja, Narendra Pindipapanahalli, Arkasubhra Ghosh#. Lower vitamin D level and distinct tear cytokine profile were observed in patients with mild dry eye signs but exaggerated symptoms. Translational Vision Science and Technology – 2016. 2016 Dec 14;5(6):16 (†equal contributors, #Corresponding author)


Swaminathan Sethu#, Rohit Shetty, Kalyani Deshpande, Natasha Pahuja, Nandini C, Aarti Agarwal, Anupam Sharma, Arkasubhra Ghosh#. Correlation between tear fluid and serum vitamin D levels. Eye and Vision – 2016. Sep 2;3(1):22 (#Corresponding author).


C. Dennis, Swaminathan Sethu, Sunita Nayak, L. Mohan, Yosry (Yos) Morsi, M. Geetha. Suture materials – Current and emerging trends. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A – 2016; 104(6): 1544-59


Rohit Shetty, Swaminathan Sethu, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Rashmi Deshmukh, Kalyani Deshpande, Aarti Agrawal, Rushad Shroff. Corneal dendritic cell density is associated with sub-basal nerve plexus features, ocular surface disease index and serum vitamin D in evaporative dry eye disease. BioMed Research International – 2016. Volume 2016, Article ID 4369750


U. Vijayalakshmi, M. Chellappa, U. Anjaneyulu, Geetha Manivasagam, Swaminathan Sethu. Influence of Coating Parameter and Sintering Atmosphere on the Corrosion Resistance Behavior of Electrophoretically Deposited Composite Coatings. Materials and Manufacturing Processes – 2016; 31(1): 95-106


Rohit Shetty, Kalyani Desphande, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Swaminathan Sethu. Management of Ocular Neuropathic Pain with Vitamin B12 supplements: A Case Report. Cornea – 2015. Oct;34(10):1324-5


Vinoth KJ, Manikandan J, Swaminathan Sethu, Balakrishnan L, Heng A, Lu K, Poonepalli A, Hande MP, Cao T. Differential resistance of human embryonic stem cells and somatic cell types to hydrogen peroxide-induced genotoxicity may be dependent on innate basal intracellular ROS levels. Folia Histochemica et Cytobiologica – 2015. 53(2):169-74


S. Vessillier, D. Eastwood, B. Fox, J. Sathish, Swaminathan Sethu, T. Dougall, S.J. Thorpe, R. Thorpe and R. Stebbings. Cytokine release assays for the prediction of therapeutic mAb safety in FIM trials Whole blood CRA are poorly predictive for TGN1412 cytokine storm. Journal of Immunological Methods – 2015. 424:43-52.


James A. Heslop, Thomas G. Hammond, Ilaria Santeramo, Agnès Tort Piella, Isabel Hopp, Jing Zhou, Roua Baty, Enrique I. Graziano, Bernabé Proto Marco, Alexis Caron, Patrik Sköld, Peter W. Andrews, Melissa A. Baxter, David Hay, Junnat Hamdam, Michaela E. Sharpe, Sara Patel, David R. Jones, Jens Reinhardt, Erik H.J. Danen, Uri Ben-David, Glyn Stacey, Petter Björquist, Jacqueline Piner, John Mills, Cliff Rowe, Giovanni Pellegrini, Swaminathan Sethu, Daniel J. Antoine, Michael J. Cross, Patricia Murray, Dominic P. Williams, Neil R. Kitteringham, Chris E.P. Goldring and B. Kevin Park. Understanding the risks of stem cell-based therapeutics. Stem Cells Translational Medicine – 2015. 4: 1 – 12.


Thilipan Thaventhiran, Naif Alhumeed, Han X.A Yeang, Swaminathan Sethu, Jocelyn S. Downey, Ahmad F. Alghanem, Adedamola Olayanju, Emma L. Smith, Michael J. Cross, Steven D. Webb, Dominic P. Williams, Adrian Bristow, Christina Ball, Richard Stebbings, and Jean G. Sathish. Failure to upregulate cell surface PD-1 is associated with dysregulated stimulation of T cells by TGN1412-like CD28 superagonist. mAbs – 2014. Sep 3;6(5):1290-9


Vinoth Kumar, Jayapal Manikandan, Swaminathan Sethu, Lakshmi Balakrishnan, Alexis Heng, Kai Lu, Manoor P Hand, Tong Cao. Evaluation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells and their Differentiated Fibroblastic Progenies as Cellular Models for In Vitro Genotoxicity Screening. Journal of Biotechnology – 2014. May 23;184C:154-168


Laith M A Al-Huseini, Han Xian Aw Yeang, Junnat M Hamdam, Swaminathan Sethu, Alumeed Naif, Wai Wong and Jean G Sathish. Heme oxygenase-1 Regulates Dendritic Cell Function through Modulation of p38MAPK-CREB/ATF1 Signalling. Journal of Biological chemistry – 2014. Jun 6;289(23):16442-51.


Laith M A Al-Huseini, Han Xian Aw Yeang, Swaminathan Sethu, Alumeed Naif, Junnat M Hamdam, Laiche Dijouri, Neil Kitteringham, B Kevin Park, Christopher E Goldring and Jean G Sathish. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) modulates dendritic cell immune function through regulation of p38 MAPK-cAMP-responsive element binding protein/activating transcription factor 1 signaling. Journal of Biological chemistry 2013. Aug 2;288(31):22281-8.


Swaminathan Sethu†, Karthik Govindappa†, Paul Quinn, Meenu Wadhwa, Richard Stebbings, Dean Naisbitt, Ian Kimber, Munir Pirmohamed, Kevin Park and Jean Sathish. Immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in multiple sclerosis patients treated with IFNb interact with the endogenous cytokine and activate complement. Clinical Immunology 2013. May 22;148(2):177-185 (†equal contributors)


Junnat Hamdam†; Swaminathan Sethu†; Trevor Smith†; Ana Alfirevic; Mohammad Alhaidari; Jeffrey Atkinson; Mimieveshiofou Ayala; Helen Box; Micheal Cross; Annie Delaunois; Ailsa Dermondy; Karthik Govindappa; Jean-Michel Guillon; Rosalind Jenkins; Gerry Kenna; Björn Lemmer; Ken Meecham; Adedamola Olayanju; Sabine Pestel; Andreas Rothfuss; James Sidaway; Rowena Sison-Young; Emma Smith; Richard Stebbings; Yulia Tingle; Jean-Pierre Valentin; Awel Williams; Dominic Williams; Kevin Park; Christopher Goldring. Safety Pharmacology – current and emerging concepts. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 2013. Dec 1;273(2):229-41. (†equal contributors)


Jean G Sathish†, Swaminathan Sethu†, Marie-Christine Bielsky, Lolke de Haan, Neil French, Karthik Govindappa, James Green, Christopher E.M. Griffiths, Stephen Holgate, David Jones, Ian Kimber, Jonathan Moggs, Dean J Naisbitt, Munir Pirmohamed, Gabriele Reichmann, Jennifer Sims, Meena Subramanyam, Marque Todd, Jan Willem Van Der Laan, Richard Weaver and B Kevin Park. Challenges and approaches for the development of safer immunomodulatory biologics. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2013, 12(4):306-324 (†equal contributors)


Thilipan Thaventhiran, Swaminathan Sethu, Han Xian Aw Yeang, Laith Al-Huseini, Junnat Hamdam, Jean G Sathish. T cell co-inhibitory receptors - functions and signalling mechanisms. Journal of clinical and cellular Immunology.2012,S12:004. doi:10.4172/2155-9899.


Swaminathan Sethu, Karthik Govindappa, Alhaidari Mohammad, Munir Pirmohamed, Kevin Park, Jean Sathish. Immunogenicity to biologics: a central role for antigen processing and presentation. Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis.2012,60:331-344


Raghu Betha, Shruti Pavagadhi, Swaminathan Sethu, M Prakash Hande & Rajasekhar Balasubramanian. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity assessment of airborne particulate matter emitted from stationary engine fuelled with diesel and waste cooking oil-derived biodiesel. Atmospheric Environment. 2012, (61) 23 – 29


PV Asharani, Swaminathan Sethu, Hui Kheng Lim, Ganapathy Balaji, Suresh Valiyaveettil, M Prakash Hande. Differential regulation of intracellular factors mediating cell cycle, DNA repair and inflammation following exposure to silver nanoparticles in human cells. Genome Integrity. 2012, Feb 10;3(1):2


Han Xian Aw Yeang, Junnat M Hamdam, Laith M A Al-Huseini, Swaminathan Sethu, Laiche Djouhri, Joanne Walsh, Neil Kitteringham, B Kevin Park, Christopher E Goldring and Jean G Sathish. Loss of the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid2 (NF-E2) p45-related factor-2 (Nrf2) leads to dysregulation of immune functions, redox homeostasis and intracellular signalling in dendritic cells. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2012, 287(13):10556-64


Samah El Ghamrasni, Ashwin Pamidi, Marie Jo Halaby, Miyuki Bohgaki, Renato Cardoso, Li Li, Shriram Venkatesan, Swaminathan Sethu, Atsushi Hirao, Tak W Mak, Manoor PrakashHande, Anne Hakem, and Razqallah Hakem. Inactivation Of Chk2 And Mus81 Leads To Impaired Lymphoctes Development, Reduced Genomic Instability And Suppression Of Cancer. PLoS Genetics. 2011 May; 7(5):e1001385


Manikandan Jayapal, Swaminathan Sethu, Dimphy Zeegers, Birendranath Banerjee and M. Prakash Hande. Predictive Genomics: A Post-genomic Integrated Approach tovAnalyse Biological Signatures of Radiation Exposure. Defence Science Journal. 2011 March; Vol. 61 (2): 133-137


Swaminathan Sethu et al. New developments on the TNFa -mediated signaling pathways. Bioscience Reports.2010 Oct;31(1):63-76


Resham Lal Gurung, Shi Ni, Khaw Aik Kia, Jasmine Fen Fen Soon, Kirthan Shenoy, Safiyya Mohamed Ali, Manikandan Jayapal, Swaminathan Sethu, Rajamanickam Baskar, M Prakash Hande. Thymoquinone induces telomere shortening, DNA damage and apoptosis in human glioblastoma cells. PLoSOne. 2010 Aug 12;5(8):e12124.


Swaminathan Sethu et al. Phospholipase D1 mediates TNFa-induced inflammation in a murine model of TNFa-induced peritonitis. PLoS One. 2010 May 5;5(5):e10506.


PV Asharani, Swaminathan Sethu, Sajini Vadukkumpully, Shaoping Zhong, Chwee Teck Lim, M Prakash Hande, Suresh Valiyaveettil. Investigations on the structural damage in human erythrocytes exposed to silver, gold and platinum nanoparticles. Advanced Functional Materials. 2010, 20, 1-10


Swaminathan Sethu, Geetha Manivasagam, J G Kannappan. Titanium in Dental Applications. Metals Materials and Processes. 2006, Vol.18, No.3-4, 451-462.


Swaminathan Sethu, Wattanapayungkul Pranee, Loh Poey Ling. Ability of composite core materials to mask the color of pre-fabricated posts under all-ceramic crowns. Journal of Dental Research. 2003 Vol82 (SpecI ss: B) p B390. Meeting Abstract: 3042


J G Kannappan, Swaminathan Sethu. A Study on a Dental Morphologic Variation -Tubercle of Carabelli. Indian Journal of Dental Research. 2001 Jul-Sep; 12(3):145-9.


Swaminathan Sethu*, Jayakrishna B*, Ravindranath, Arunachalam D. A Comparative Study on Efficacy of Supra-Gingival Surface, Plaque Removal with Four Different Manual Tooth Brush Designs. Journal of Indian Dental Association. Nov 2000. (*equal contributors).